What if?

Deconstructing an irreversible outcome from health inequality

Both are...

63 years old and male
fathers of two daughters
patients with severe heart disease





Ajay recovered from a
bypass surgery and
was discharged from hospital

Bob died at the hospital

Ajay is in Hart , Hampshire

Bob is in Blackpool

That is not a coincidence

What if

Bob had gone to the hospital
at the right time?

What if

Bob had seen his GP more regularly
so that his GP could've detected and prevented
his condition earlier...

...instead of ad hoc visits
to the Accident and Emergency (A&E)

What if

Bob had not been obese and
had a healthier lifestyle?

What if

Bob had enjoyed a better quality education
so that his employment prospects and
lifestyle would have been better?

What if

Bob had not lived in a poor quality, cold house as a child
which contributed to his asthma
that sometimes prevented him from attending school?

All these things made the difference between Ajay recovery and Bob's premature death

Unfortunately, the situation will be worsened generation after generation, if untouched

The effect of growing health inequalities is felt across the whole nation


54,020 years
of life of under 75 were lost
due to heart disease:
7,080 years
in the most deprived decile vs
3,935 years
in the least deprived decile

If entire England had
the same infant death rate of
the least deprived quintile,
500 more

would survive
beyond the first year

Health inequalities lead to
productivity losses of
£ 31-33bn
per annum and
direct NHS costs of
£ 5.5bn


By Owen Cho and Eileen Robertson

Acknowledgement: Nicole Meikle for design advice






For details about source and data processing, please refer technical paper       
GitHub repo